A Unique Smart Nutrient to Enhance Your Mental Function Now ...With GPC

A Unique Smart Nutrient to Enhance Your Mental Function Now ...With GPC

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Helping to Repair Brain Cell Membranes for Long Term

Improve immediate recall, reaction time, and mood

Protect delicate brain cells and membranes

Help counteract cognitive impairment such as:

Alzheimer’s disease, brain injuries, stroke, vascular

The new choline that enhances cognition in the young,

are continually learning about how the brain functions,

environmental and dietary factors that contribute

to brain aging—and enhancement—and how it’s possible

to increase your intelligence and sensory perception

beyond the predictors of aging, genetics, and IQ tests.

Glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC), a form of choline,

is an exciting nutrient recently developed as a cognitive

enhancer. But GPC is not the ordinary form of choline

we’ve been hearing about (or even taking) for years.

GPC is a source of phospholipids (the prime building

blocks of life) and choline, which is utilized for

phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in the brain, and

for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine—one of the

chemicals that enable brain cells to communicate with

each other. Although GPC has all the benefits of choline,

it is much more effective at increasing acetylcholine

is essential for cognitive function, and is responsible

for storing and recalling memories. It is vital for

communication between neurons, and in two Italian

studies supplementation with GPC indicated an increase

in brain function directly related to a healthy supply

the two controlled trials, daily doses of 1200 mg

of GPC improved the immediate recall and attention

in a group of young adult males (ages 19-38) compared

with a placebo.1,2 In middle-aged and elderly subjects,

GPC supplementation improved reaction time by supporting

energy generation and electrical coordination in the

studies of older patients with vascular dementia,

1200 mg per day of GPC helped improve cognition, as

well as emotional state, confusion, and apathy.5

is choline important to brain functioning?

is the important B vitamin that fuels tissue renewal

and helps build acetylcholine. It is so vital to thought

and nerve function that, without it, we couldn’t move,

is also responsible for synthesizing phosphatidylcholine

(PC), a component of the membrane of every cell in

your body, including brain cells. In addition to its

role as a structural element in cell membranes, PC

acts as a choline reservoir for synthesizing more

phosphatidylcholine is a common component of cell

membranes, it is distributed throughout the body.

Also, as we age, choline levels decline and it is

unable to get into the brain efficiently.7,8 For years,

lecithin was a popular supplement thought to supply

choline, but a review of randomized trials did not

find lecithin to be more beneficial than placebo in

the treatment of patients with dementia or cognitive

is a "next generation" supplement that effectively

supplies choline, stimulates membrane repair and benefits

than twenty clinical trials have demonstrated

that GPC is a nutraceutical breakthrough for

has been proven extremely effective, both in the elderly

for brain decline linked to poor circulation and Alzheimer’s

disease, and for enhancing mental performance in healthy

help brain recovery following injury, coma, and

improve memory and cognitive performance in patients

improve memory and learning ability in laboratory

counteract brain aging in rats by increasing cholinergic

of acetylcholine,16,17 increasing nerve growth factor

receptors in the brain,18 and slowing down undesirable

counter the age-related loss of nerve cells and

protect the brain and other organs against toxic

increase growth hormone secretion in both the

support patients recovering from cerebral ischemic

increase the release of dopamine, the neurotransmitter

that plays a major role in Parkinson’s disease24,25

is water-soluble and after it is ingested it quickly

enters the brain, where it protects neurons and improves

signal transmission, and supports brain function and

learning processes by directly increasing the synthesis

and secretion of acetylcholine, as your body needs

it. Instead of being a precursor to phosphatidylcholine

(PC), GPC is actually a metabolite of PC.

other words, after phosphatidylcholine is metabolized

and stripped of its fatty acids, GPC—a glycerin molecule

bound to phosphocholine—is what remains. This is a

source of choline in the same form that a cell would

obtain from scavenging its own membranes. And this

is exactly the form of choline that neurons prefer

to use for synthesizing acetylcholine during times

GPC is very good at repairing and maintaining brain

cell membranes. What most people don’t understand

is that a cell membrane is living fluid. If you were

able to watch the activity in a cell membrane in real

time, it’d be like watching a firework display with

a million things happening at once. Neurotransmitters

are released through the membrane, which needs to

be instantly repaired. As we age, the mechanism that

allows the membrane to be repaired becomes compromised,

which is another reason to take GPC as a nutritional

decline of growth hormone (GH) levels as we age is

believed to contribute to decreases in bone mass,

muscle mass, and strength. The decrease in GH is also

Interestingly, the cholinergic system helps regulate

GH through the release of growth hormone-releasing

hormone, which in turn triggers secretion of GH from

one study, in order to learn the effect that GPC had

on GH secretion, GH-release hormone (GHRH) was given

to young and old human volunteers, with or without

the addition of GPC. The younger subjects showed a

higher level of GH secretion than the older individuals,

and both groups had a greater growth hormone response

to the GHRH plus GPC than to GHRH alone. The ability

of GPC to increase GH secretion was more pronounced

results showed that supplementation with GPC enhances

the release of growth hormone (GH),28 indicating that

it can help counteract aging in the elderly and help

build muscle mass and strength in the young.

you might imagine, the maintenance of membranes requires

much more than just a source of choline. GPC appears

to be a particularly effective form of choline, but

if it were possible to further stimulate the natural

process of membrane repair, even greater beneficial

effects could be obtained. Scientists have long known

that the conversion of choline to a compound called

citicoline is an essential step for phospholipid production

occurs naturally in the body and works by supplying

cytidine and choline to the cells.

(a nucleic acid) helps promote the conversion of choline

into membranes, an essential step for cellular function.

Choline is also necessary in order to get the full

effect of cytidine. Because of this, citicoline was

developed as a neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing

drug in Europe and Japan. The research on citicoline

has found that it is helpful in:

studies on humans and rats have shown that ingestion

of citicoline helps reverse age-related changes in

the brain. In a study at Harvard Medical School healthy,

older subjects who took 500 mg of citicoline for six

weeks had an increase of phosphotidylcholine in the

brain and improved their scores on the California

study done at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Cambridge, Massachusetts, tested the verbal memory

of older volunteers who were given citicoline. In

the initial study, a group of 47 women and 48 men,

58-85 years of age, were given 1000 mg of citicoline

a day. After three months, the men and women with

inefficient memories showed an improvement in delayed

recall on logical memory tests. In a crossover study

in which the group was given a placebo and a higher

dosage of citicoline the results indicated a clear

improvement in immediate and delayed logical memory.

The study concluded that citicoline may prove effective

in treating age-related cognitive decline that may

citicoline is ingested it is broken down into cytidine

and choline. The cytidine portion is rapidly converted

to uridine. Uridine—another nucleic acid— is the form

that is apparently transported in blood37, and cytidine

is what is used on a cellular level. It appears that

uridine can supercharge the beneficial effects of

choline, so the functionality of citicoline can be

latest research shows that supplementation with uridine

and GPC provides the optimal source of choline and

co-factors for cognitive enhancement, membrane repair,

GPC form of choline is much more effective at increasing

blood levels of choline as compared to choline or

citicoline.38 Since the combination of uridine and

GPC provides the ingredients needed for optimal cell

membrane repair, it makes sense to take a nutritional

to twelve percent of the brain is composed of lipids,39

which insulate the electrical pathways enabling healthy

neurotransmission. These lipids, however, are highly

susceptible to oxidative damage, and brain cells are

delicate and susceptible to free radical damage from

stress, pollutants, drugs, poor diet, inadequate blood

there are three theories that explain why memory and

to the cholinergic theory, neurological function diminishes

when brain cells lose their ability to produce adequate

amounts of neurotransmitters. The theory was developed

in 1982 when scientists reported that the number of

cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain was substantially

lower in Alzheimer’s disease patients than in healthy

decline in numbers and the shriveling in size of these

cholinergic cells is partly the result of defective

cell membranes caused by a decreased availability

of choline and an increased breakdown of phosphatidylcholine.42-46

When choline is in short supply and cholinergic cells

are active, any available choline goes to make more

acetylcholine at the expense of building membranes.

Eventually, enough choline is withdrawn from the membrane

so that the amount of PC in a cell actually decreases,

a process known as autocannibalism.47 It is believed

that this disruption in normal membrane structure

in brain cells is a major cause of brain aging.

A second theory ties the decline of cognitive

function and memory to the actual structure of the

brain. Over time, brain cells die, the brain shrinks,

and there is a decrease in synaptic density affecting

the brain’s capacity to process and store information.

The membrane hypothesis, which was developed in

the late 1970s on the basis of a series of biological

experiments, asserts that the lipid composition of

cells changes due to the accumulation of cholesterol

in cell membranes. Consequently, membrane fluidity

decreases, leading to less enzyme activity and a decrease

in neurotransmission, which negatively impacts cognitive

good news is Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC)

and Uridine have been shown to protect and repair

delicate brain cells and membranes—and consequently

help slow down brain aging, and support memory and

your mental faculties is one of the greatest fears

of the elderly. But because of the alarming rate at

which Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia

are increasing, baby boomers are beginning to worry

4 million Americans currently suffer from Alzheimer’s.

In a 1993 national survey, 19 million Americans said

they had a family member with the disease, and 37

million said they knew someone with Alzheimer’s. The

disease is increasing so fast that experts predict

by 2025 more than 22 million people worldwide will

be affected unless a cure or prevention is found.50

only way to avoid the epidemic, research scientists

say, is to accelerate the search for a way to delay,

prevent, or cure the disease. But "large scale

trials are expensive—$15 to $20 million each—and they

take at least five years to get results," says

Dr. Steven DeKosky of Pittsburgh, a national leader

in Alzheimer research and chair of the Alzheimer’s

Association’s Medical and Scientific Advisory Council.51

scientists now know that brain cells begin to change

at least ten years before the symptoms of Alzheimer’s

appear, baby boomers will reach the age of highest

risk in about 2010, adds DeKosky. "We do not

have enough time left to do these five-year trials

one at a time. Scientists have many more good ideas

for effective treatments than they can test with current

of the good ideas that is showing positive results

for Alzheimer’s disease, other forms of dementia and

cognitive problems, and as a general cognitive enhancer

is nutritional supplementation with GPC and Uridine.

there is much more research to be done into the effects

GPC and Uridine on human subjects, the results of

studies so far are extremely encouraging. Safe and

without side effects, GPC and Uridine are nutritional

supplements that provide a superior form of choline

to the brain and have been shown to protect cell membranes,

and provide an overall anti-aging effect for brain

offers tremendous potential for preventing Alzheimer’s

disease, as does citicoline and uridine. Autocannabalism

of membrane phosphatidylcholine to make acetylcholine

seems to explain the unique vulnerability of cholinergic

neurons to age-related decline. It is thought that

changes in the cell membrane due to phosphatidylcholine

depletion impair normal processing of amyloid precursor

protein by the membrane bound proteases. The problem

is, once you have Alzheimer’s, you already have massive

brain cell loss, which nothing can reverse. So treatment

is much more difficult than prevention.

you or someone you love would like the support of

a superb cognitive enhancer, are concerned about the

threat of Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia,

or suffer from a brain injury due to accident, illness

or stroke, try GPC and Uridine—the "next generation"

N, et al. Effect of L-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine on

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Against Time: Alzheimer’s Epidemic Hits as America

Ages" News Release, 3-27-2000. AlzheimerSupport.com